Last Updated on
CBD vs THC – Risks, Uses and Benefits
As the legalisation of cannabis continues to grow in developed countries around the world, so too has the number of questions consumers have regarding its primary constituents CBD and THC.
In this article, we’ll take a look at the risks, uses, and benefits of the cannabis plant’s heavy-hitting compounds.
CBD Vs THC – The Differences
CBD and THC are from the same family of plant, but the different genus gives them distinctly different characteristics both in terms of their chemical makeup and benefits.
Which one can get you “High”?
THC binds with CB1 receptors in our brain which produces the renowned euphoric effect. Under no circumstances will CBD provide a high as it has no binding affinity to CB1 receptors. On the contrary, CBD has a calming effect and can actually reduce the unwanted side effects of THC.
Key Differences Between The Two
CBD, when taken, provides a noticeable calming anti-anxiety effect whereas THC evokes a euphoric high that makes the user feel in the moment and ultra happy.
How Are They Made?
Both CBD and THC come from the cannabis Sativa (hemp) plant. They are primarily located in the hair-like resinous glands in the flower but can also be found on the leaves and stems.
CBD – An Explanation
Cannabidiol, or CBD as it is more commonly known, is one of over 113 cannabinoids (compounds) found in the cannabis plant. It became famous when videos emerged showing it safely stopping seizures in people with epilepsy.
It has also been linked with a huge array of other medicinal benefits such as reducing inflammation, anxiety, and pain. Its non-intoxicating properties have also helped open doors to researchers worldwide.
THC – An Explanation
THC is the dominant cannabinoid in THC-rich cannabis plants and is best known for its high-like effects. THC binds with CB1 receptors in our brain resulting in an almost instant high that can last for hours.
Although primarily used for recreational purposes, THC has numerous other medicinal benefits that are currently being investigated, especially when used in conjunction with CBD.
CBD vs THC – What Are The Benefits?
The number of reported benefits of CBD and THC both scientifically and anecdotally is staggering. Fascinatingly, these compounds of cannabis are seen as a potential panacea given the plethora of potential benefits documented in the US National Library of Medicine. These include:
- Kill Cancer Cells
- Reduce Inflammation
- Relieve Anxiety/Depression
- Relieve Pain
Kill Cancer Cells
Both THC and CBD have been shown to kill cancerous cells under the microscope and in animals. Lab testing showed cannabinoids killing colon cancer cells. THC reduced tumour growth in animals and CBD inhibited id1 in breast cancer cells which regulates tumour aggressiveness.
CBD has been shown to reduce inflammation by suppressing cytokine production in the body. Excessive chronic inflammation is dangerous and can cause multiple problems such as autoimmune disorders.
CBD has been shown to have anti-anxiety effects in several human trials involving public speaking. CBD was shown to significantly reduce subjective anxiety compared to placebo without any side effects.
Symptoms of depression were reduced by 89.3% when cannabis (THC and CBD) was inhaled according to a Washington State University study.
CBD can regulate the perception of pain according to researchers at Belgrade University who reviewed cannabinoid research from 1975 to 2018.
THC has been shown to reduce chronic pain in cancer sufferers with 64% reporting a reduction in opioid use following consumption of cannabis according to researchers at Michigan University.
More clinical research is needed to convince the general public of the benefits of CBD and THC but if results seen in cell and animal studies were replicated it would radically transform our health system.
CBD and THC – What Are The Side Effects?
Both CBD and THC are non-toxic, well-tolerated in humans, and you cannot overdose on either. That being said, there are some side effects that are worth discussing. In particular, potential drug on drug interaction.
- Dry Mouth
- Drug on Drug Interaction
Dry mouth is the most common side effect of THC. This is a temporary situation where the salivary glands in the mouth do not produce enough saliva, making it difficult to speak coherently.
Paranoia is a common side effect for THC users. Scientists are unsure as to the root of the cause but interestingly this elevated fear and anxiety can actually be negated by administering CBD.
Drug on Drug Interactions
Pharmaceutical drugs are metabolised in the liver before entering the bloodstream. CBD and THC can potentially increase or decrease certain drug concentrations (antidepressants, statins for example) and as such anyone on medication should consult with a doctor prior to taking either cannabinoid. This may also reduce pharma drug side effects.
In human clinical trials, tiredness was reported as a side effect in people who received a large dose of CBD. Small doses of CBD may actually increase alertness. In terms of THC large doses of Indica strains, in particular, may result in tiredness. However, some people say that CBD improves their sleep.
In comparison to pharmaceutical drugs, the side effects of THC and CBD are considered by many to be much safer. In fact, the drug on drug interactions can play a positive note like in the case of epilepsy patients who took CBD and ended up lowering their pharmaceutical medication and the side effects from pharma drugs as a result.
Differences Between The Legality Of THC & CBD
The benefits and side effects of both cannabinoids vary as much as their legality. In the UK CBD is 100% legal and available both on the high street and online. THC, on the other hand, is only available to people with certain illnesses.
Support from patients and their families and subsequent legalisation of medicinal THC-rich cannabis in the UK last year has led to people wanting to know more, such as how exactly do they work.
Interaction Of THC/CBD With Receptors
The human body is covered in receptors which are like gates that certain molecules have the key to open. CBD and THC interact with a whole host of receptors and in turn produce a multitude of physiological and cognitive effects.
What Ways Are There To Consume THC & CBD
Political, societal, and academic backing has prompted manufacturers to widen their CBD and THC products so every palate and person is accounted for.
No matter what ailment or condition there is a method for everyone to consume the cannabinoid of their choice with the most popular being:
Smoking or vaping CBD or THC oil will give you a fast onset of effects and high bioavailability. This is one of the reasons that vaping, all over the world, has gotten so huge. It can also help people to stop smoking cigarettes. If you want, however, you can also buy and smoke CBD cigarettes which are becoming increasingly popular.
CBD oil tinctures are glass bottles with a dropper attached to the lid. Tinctures place drops under the tongue for fast absorption. It is probably the most popular way to consume CBD because of the ease of which you can ingest it. Many of the best CBD oil UK brands have a big range of tinctures as they are the highest sellers at the moment.
Edibles are simple and can include CBD capsules and gummy bears. However, the downside with these edibles is that it can take a while for the CBD to get into your bloodstream. This is especially noticeable when you compare it to vaping.
Topicals work for skincare right at the site of the problem. You can get CBD balms, creams and gels. A lot of people will use CBD creams for their acne will some people say that it got rid of the acne completely.
There are numerous other ways to consume these cannabinoids such as drinks, suppositories. The list is ever-growing.
So CBD vs THC, both have medicinal properties and are linked with a wide range of potential health benefits. The most well-known difference between these cannabinoids is that THC produces a high-like euphoric effect whereas CBD provides a calming effect and can actually offset some of the negative side effects of THC.
More human clinical trials are clearly required to determine if the vast range of effects seen in vivo and in vitro can be replicated in humans, and if it does it will surely transform worldwide healthcare forever for the better.